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OR E EN FORCA É SÓ A QUESTÃO DE UMA CEDILHA DE CORDA
O PORTUGUÊS É UMA LÍNGUA QUE SE ENFORCA NELA MESMA
COMO DIZ SOARES ELE PRÓPRIO.....
use stocks of selected REEs by specific application or industry (in gigagrams)
(Du and Graedel, 2011).
3. Distribution of REEs by End Use in 2008 (U.S. DOI/USGS, 2010)
Metallurgical applications and alloys
Rare earth phosphors for computer monitors, lighting, radar, televisions, and X
Automotive catalytic converters
Glass polishing and ceramics
Petroleum refining catalysts
REE Global Economic Supply and Demand
From the 1960s until the 1980s, the United States was the world leader in REO production. In fact, in
1984, the Mountain Pass Mine in California supplied 100 percent of U.S. demand and 33 percent of the
world’s demand for rare earths. In the late 1970s, China started increasing production of REEs,
, rapidly became the world’s dominant producer.
Active mining operations at
Mountain Pass Mine were suspended in 2002. Since 2007, separation of REE from stockpiles at the site
has continued. As REE production in the U.S. has declined, China has becom
e the world’s leading
producer of REEs and is currently responsible for more than 95 percent of global production.
Rare Earth Elements Review
Section 2 –
Introduction to Rare Earth Elements
production of rare earth oxides
(Du and Graedel, 2011).
Annual global production of REEs totaled about 124,000 tons in 2008, according to a recent report by the
U.S. Congressional Research Service (Humphries, 2010). According to this same report, analysis of the
future supply and demand for each of the REEs indicates that, by 2014, global demand could exceed
200,000 tons p
er year, which would exceed current production by over 75,000 tons per year. Additional
analysis by others indicates the high likelihood of shortages of neodymium, dysprosium, terbium, and
praseodymium and the potential for shortages of lanthanum, yttrium, and, europium by 2014 (Schuler et
al., 2011). This information, combined with the data shown in Figure 2-3, indicates that the uses most
likely to be impacted by future shortages are magnets for use in computers, audio systems, wind turbines,
les; motors/generators; batteries; metallurgy; and catalysts. The critical nature of these uses
is driving the push for increased mining, expanded recycling and research into alternatives, and changes
in U.S. and international policy.
In 2008, the United States consumed 7,410 metric tons of REEs (U.S. DOI/USGS, 2010). Currently, this
demand is met mainly through imports from China, industry inventories, and stockpiles. However, as
early as 2012, U.S. production may be resumed at the Mountain Pass Mine, whic
h is projecting
production of 18,000 tons in 2012 and up to 40,000 tons per year in following years. The status and
critical issues facing this mine, as well as other potential U.S. mines, are presented in
. It is
reported that if the new mines under development are able to meet their projected production levels,
world-wide demand for REEs will be met from these new sources (Long, 2011)
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